Tiempo después sus restos y los de Geta fueron transferidos por orden de Julia Maesa al Mausoleo de Adriano. [31]​ También se cree que Julia introdujo en Roma el uso de pelucas, una moda asiria. [16] Another politician, Didius Julianus, was called to Rome and appointed emperor. De su hermana y el marido de esta, Cayo Julio Avito Alexiano, Domna tuvo dos sobrinas: Julia Soemias y Julia Mamea, las madres respectivas de los futuros emperadores Heliogábalo (r. 218–222) y Alejandro Severo (r. An elder senator, Pertinax, was appointed by the Praetorian Guard as the new emperor of Rome. [33]​, Esta obra contiene una traducción derivada de «. [2]​ Su nombre, Domna, es una palabra árabe arcaica que significa «negro»,[3]​ en referencia a la naturaleza de El-Gabal, que tomó la forma de una piedra negra. [30], As worded by William S. Greenwalt, in 217, "Caracalla began his own Parthian war over the rejection of his proposal to marry a Parthian princess. Before her marriage, Domna inherited the estate of her paternal great-uncle Julius Agrippa, a former leading centurion. Julia Domna (Latin: [ˈjuːli.a ˈdomna]; c. 160 – 217 AD) was Roman empress consort from 193 to 211. Sus dos hijos sucedieron a su padre como emperadores, pero tuvieron una relación conflictiva y Julia actuó como conciliadora, a pesar de lo cual Caracalla asesinó a su hermano Geta ese mismo año. «Julia Domna: Mater Senatus et Patriae». Julia Domna, cuyo nombre original era Martha (Domna era la transcripción latina de su significado, “señora”) nació en Emesa, la actual Homs, en Siria, el año 170. Domna accompanied Caracalla to Antioch, where she established her chancery while he advanced to the frontier. La Guardia pretoriana nombró nuevo emperador de Roma a un veterano senador, Pertinax, pero cuando este demostró no ser capaz de atender a las demandas económicas de la Guardia, también fue asesinado. She received titles such as "Mother of the Invincible Camps". [9]​, Después de que el emperador Cómodo fuera asesinado en 192 sin haber dejado un heredero, varios contendientes trataron de hacerse con el trono, entre ellos Septimio Severo, marido de Julia. [11]​ Cuando poco después Severo proclamó a su hijo Caracalla como sucesor, Clodio Albino fue aclamado como emperador por sus tropas. Baharal, Drora (1992). [17], Severus claimed the title of emperor in 193. Después de ofrecer el título de César (sucesor) al poderoso gobernador de Britania, Clodio Albino, Severo se centró en acabar con otro rival por el trono, Pescenio Níger, a quien derrotó en la batalla de Issos en 194. En 193 estalló una guerra civil en Roma por el trono del imperio y poco después Severo se autoproclamó emperador. Benario, H. W. (1958). The title Pia Felix Augusta (Latin: [ˈpi.a ˈfeːliːks au̯ˈɡusta]) which she received after Severus' death was "perhaps a way of implying that Domna had absorbed and was continuing her husband's attributes" after his death.[24]. She was born in Emesa (present-day Homs) in Roman Syria to an Arab family of priests of the deity Elagabalus.In 187, she married Libyan-born Septimius Severus, who at the time was governor of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis.They had two sons, Caracalla and Geta. [25] According to Lindner, While some scholars have proposed that Julia Domna's medallions commemorate the restoration of the Temple of Vesta by the empress, Melanie Grunow Sobocinski pointed out that [the temple] burned down in 191, whereas Julia Domna's use of Vestal iconography does not occur until 207. [22][b] She was respected and viewed positively for most of her tenure, as indicated by coins minted with her portrait that mentioning her titles or simply as "Julia Augusta". [10], The Augustan History relates that, after losing his first wife around 186,[11] politician Septimius Severus heard a foretelling of a woman in Syria who would marry a king. [12] This woman was Domna. As empress, Domna was famous for her political, social, and philosophical influence. Espacio, Tiempo y Forma, Serie II, Historia Antigua, Nº 30 (2017), pp. [19] As worded by Barbara Levick, Domna "was to exceed all other empresses in the number and variety of her official titles. [38] Domna's body was brought to Rome and placed in the Sepulcrum C. et L. Caesaris (perhaps a separate chamber in the Mausoleum of Augustus). Tras la muerte de Severo en 211, Domna se convirtió en la primera emperatriz viuda en recibir los títulos de «Pia Felix Augusta», que quizá le otorgaban más poderes de los que nunca antes había gozado otra emperatriz madre romana. [29] As explained by Caillan Davenport: [Caracalla] spent the majority of his reign outside Rome, departing the city in late 212 or early 213 for a campaign against the Alamanni on the Rhine, for which he claimed the title Germanicus Maximus. Collingwood, Robin George; Myres, John Nowell Linton (1936). But when Pertinax would not meet the Guard's demands, he too was murdered. Como emperatriz, Julia fue célebre por su influencia política, social y filosófica, así como por recibir los títulos de mater castrorum —«madre de los campamentos militares»—. When Severus died in 211 in Eboracum (York), Domna became the mediator between their two sons, Caracalla and Geta, who were supposed to rule as joint emperors, according to their father's wishes expressed in his will. [12]​, A diferencia de la mayoría de las consortes de emperadores romanos, Julia acompañó a su marido en las campañas militares y acampó con las legiones. However, the two young men had a discordant relationship,[27] and Geta was murdered by Caracalla's soldiers in December of the same year. Según se desprende de evidencias numismáticas, relatos de historiadores y una lacónica inscripción hallada in situ, algunos estudiosos están de acuerdo en que Julia financió la restauración del lugar durante el reinado de Septimio Severo. After the death of Domna, her older sister Julia Maesa successfully contended for political power. Así, Julia se convirtió en emperatriz consorte. [32] Domna chose to commit suicide after hearing about the rebellion,[33][34] perhaps a decision hastened by the fact that she was suffering from breast cancer, as well as a reluctance to return to private life. Kettenhofen E., "Die syrischen Augustae in der historischen Überlieferung". Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, accompanied her son on his provincial tour.
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