Moche Feline Painting. Structure as Meaning in Ancient Andean textiles. Also central to the present study, is the idea that Staff Gods are not necessarily, or solely, supernatural representations. An appropriate point of entry to our discussion is the reported absence of scenes within Tiwanaku stone carved imagery, a fact noted in other studies (e. g., Posnansky 1945; Kubler 1984; Makowski 2001a, 2009). [ Links ], Oakland, A., 1986. The motifs carved on the Gateway of the Sun have been interpreted as forming a celestial calendar divided in twelve months (Posnansky 1945; Makowski 2001a; Benitez 2006, 2009; Isbell 2008). [ Links ], González de la Rosa, M., 1909. In Handbook of South American Indians 2, The Andean Civilizations, J. Foto: M. Viau-Courville). His hypothesis was accepted and applied by many scholars (e. g., Valcárcel 1959: 3; Bankes 1977: 144-146). Los textiles de Pulacayo y las relaciones entre Tiwanaku y San Pedro de Atacama. Janusek (2006: 485) also recently highlighted the scenic organization of the imagery, emphasizing "a central deity (or deity impersonator) that faces the viewer, surrounded on either side by three rows of winged, genuflecting attendants rendered in profile, all above a serpentine band that weaves around eleven repeating faces of the central figure". The other was called Chuquiylla, representing lightning, placed on the left of the Sun. 101-121. In Visions of Tiwanaku, A. Vranich & C. Stanish, Eds., pp. Its original orientation within the temple remains unknown, however. [ Links ], Isbell, H. W. & A. Vranich, 2004. Viena: Imprenta Imperial de la Corte. The greater size of the central personage by comparison suggests its higher status (see also Cook 1994). In El mundo sobrenatural Mochica. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. In fact, personages from both San Pedro de Atacama and Tiwanaku include attributes consistent with known practices associated with the use hallucinogens (Torres 2004, 2008; Torres & Repke 2006; Torres & Torres 2014). The pedestal attribute also legitimizes the power relation between central and attendant personages (Cook 1983: 179, 1994; Goldstein 1993: 24-25). In Investigations of the Andean Past: First Annual Northeast Conference on Andean Archaeology and Ethnohistory, D. H. Sandweiss, Ed., pp. Figure 5. The scene carved on the Bennett Monolith displays a similar spatial configuration to one found on a Recuay vessel, representing a central personage, attendants, along with two additional elements that complete the scene (behind the central personage) (fig. Viena: Hartleben's Verlag. Valencia: Universitat de València. Stages and Periods in Archaeological Interpretation. Royal Statues, Staff Gods, and the Religious Ideology of the Prehistoric State of Tiwanaku. en materia forestal y bioestadística. Recent arguments by Bandy's (2013) discuss the directional indicators of energy or "sami" in imagery of Tiwanaku carved stones provides further evidence to suggest that directionality may have been a matter concerning an external agent and not focused on central personages. At Tiwanaku, Staff Gods were found almost exclusively on stone sculptures. Por ejemplo, si selecciona una configuración que no sea Ninguno, todas las opciones que no sean Datos dependientes del dispositivo estarán predefinidas y atenuadas. La iconografía del poder en Tiwanaku y su rol en la integración de zonas de frontera. I would thank Pablo Rendón, George F. Lau, Kevin Lane, and the three anonymous referees for their valuable advice. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Pese a que los países han desarrollado estos procesos con anterioridad, pocos entre ellos Style and Time in the Middle Horizon. Some images also seem to have been carved as "textiles draped over stone" (Stone-Miller 2002: 133). Comparisons with Moche and Recuay scenic configurations also give further meaning to such a hypothesis. Denver, CO: Denver Art Museum. Axiality in Tiwanaku Architecture, Urban Planning, and Stone Carved Imagery. 101-114. Studies have shown that the intricate imageries carved on stone sculptures bear strong textile-like qualities, representing items of elite clothing such as head bands, skirts or fajas, and ankle garments (Bennett 1956, 1963: 308; Sawyer 1963; Conklin 1970, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2004, 2009; Torres & Torres 2014). Here we develop on this concept, exploring the idea that Tiwanaku artists may also have represented scenes, albeit employing a unique conventionalized pictorial approach and technique proper to Middle Horizon art. Fragment from Conchopata with "Staff God" personage (Museo Histórico Regional Ayacucho, Peru. This video is unavailable. (Ed. RELACIÓN ESPACIAL • Espacio interior a otro: La continuidad visual y espacial que une a dos espacios se percibe con facilidad, pero el espacio menor depende del mayor, en virtud de los nexos directos que éste posee con el exterior. Based on this new line of reasoning, he argued that Sawyer's lateral distortion was more consistent with what he called a convergence toward a "vanishing horizon" as sets of horizontal lines organized logarithmically (Conklin 1986: 124).
2020 normatividad en la configuración espacial